A neoliberal Foucault?

A NEOLIBERAL FOUCAULT?
[
¿Un Foucault neoliberal?]

Edgardo Castro

Conicet / UNSAM
Miñones 2073, CP 1177, CABA, Argentina
edgardomanuelcastro@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This article deals with Michel Foucault’s 1978 and 1979 courses on liberalism and neoliberalism. It aspires to elucidate the historical circumstances, the conception of liberalism as critical political rationality and its projections in Foucault’s subsequent research. Along the same lines, the article also makes some critical considerations about the reception of Foucault’s ideas about liberal and neoliberal thought.

Keywords: Liberalism, Political Left, Critic, Veridiction, Security.

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Human rights violations…

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS BY NON-STATE ACTORS: A COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF RIGHTS
[
La violación de derechos humanos por sujetos no estatales: una visión completa de los derechos]

Vladimir Chorny Elizalde

Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Argentina
CONACyT, México
Instituto A. Gioja – Av. Figueroa Alcorta 2263, CP 1425 – CABA – Argentina
vladimirchornyuba@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this work I criticize the traditional version of the concept of “human rights”. This view relies on the State-centric thesis which sustains that what makes this concept special is that (i) only states are bound by human rights obligations, and (ii) that only states can violate them (either acting directly or indirectly by failing on its duties to protect and guarantee them). I defend an alternative account based on the interest theory of rights put forward by Raz, together with the successive waves of duties theory of Jeremy Waldron (normatively). Grounded on these views I develop a critical reading of the present situation –socially, politically and economically– in order to propose a complete theory of human rights which claims that (i) there are other non-state actors who have obligations of human rights properly, and (ii) that they can effectively violate human rights (and do violate them in practice).

Keywords: globalization, human rights, interest-based theories of rights, State obligations, violations of human rights.

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The aristocracy of all…

THE ARISTOCRACY OF ALL: GARGARELLA OR THE CONSTITUTIONALISM OF EQUALITY
[
Una aristocracia para todos: Gargarella o el constitucionalismo de la igualdad]

J. J. Moreso

Universidad Pompeu Faba, Departamento de Derecho
Barcelona, España
Ramón Trías Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona, España, Oficina 40025
josejuan.moreso@upf.edu

 

ABSTRACT

In this comment to the brilliant book on the Constitutionalism in Latin-America, Gargarella (2015), it is accepted that perhaps is the equality the empty promise among the ideals of constitutionalism in this region of the world. It is also accepted that an important part of the reason for this absence of equality lies in the institutional design, in the engine room of the Constitution, concretely in an hypertrophy of presidentialism. A complementary suggestion is added: the ideal of a constitutional democracy presupposes the existence of a State with an autonomous, efficient, professional and robust public Administration. Only with a well-designed tax system and an Administration apt to carry out the proper functions it is possible to build a well-ordered society in which the Rawlsian Difference Principle is respected and honoured.

Keywords: Roberto Gargarella. Latin-American Constitutionalism. Equality. John Rawls. The Difference Principle. Public Administration.

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Democracy, individual rights and…

DEMOCRACY, INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND THE ENGINE ROOM OF THE CONSTITUTION: A BRIEF RESPONSE TO MARISA IGLESIAS
[
La democracia, los derechos y la sala de máquinas de la Constitución: una breve réplica a Marisa Iglesias]

Roberto Gargarella
Conicet, Argentina
Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Argentina
Av. Presidente Figueroa Alcorta 7350 (1428) CABA (Argentina)
roberto.gargarella@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This brief article is a response to some of the objections that Marisa Iglesias has formulated against my conception of individual rights and the role I assign to courts in my book Latin American Constitutionalism: The Engine Room of the Constitution. In particular, I clarify some of my main ideas in this respect, highlight several points of agreement with Marisa and offer a quick blueprint of my views about dialogic constitutionalism.

Keywords: Democracy, Individual Rights, Dialogic Constitutionalism, Judicial Activism

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Institutional perfection…

INSTITUTIONAL PERFECTION OR IMPROVEMENT OF IMPERFECT INSTITUTIONS?
AN ESSAY ON THE METHODOLOGICAL STATUS OF PERFECT BUT UNFEASIBLE INSTITUTIONAL REGIMES
[
¿Perfección institucional o mejoramiento de las instituciones imperfectas? Un ensayo sobre el estatus metodológico de regímenes institucionales perfectos pero implausibles]

Leandro Martins Zanitelli
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Av. Álvarez Cabral, 221 – Centro, Minas Gerais (Brasil)
leandrozanitelli@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

The paper deals with “perfect institutional regimes” (PIRs), defined as regimes that optimally satisfy a given value (like justice). Assuming that a PIR is unfeasible in the short term to agents willing to achieve it, what reasons do we have to spend time on a PIR? One answer is that knowing about PIRs is interesting enough to warrant an inquiry into the subject, even if it is not likely to change the world. Another is that searching for a PIR helps to set up the principles under which more modest proposals of change are to be evaluated. Another, finally, is that theorizing about a PIR may have a motivational impact: although there are no motivated agents to whom the realization of a PIR is nowadays feasible, talking about it might lead to a change of this scenario.

Keywords: Perfect institutional regimes, ideal and non ideal theories, feasibility, property-owning democracy, liberal socialism

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El peso de los daños

THE WEIGHT OF HARM: HARMED STATES AND REASONS AGAINST HARMING
[El peso de los daños: estado de daño y razones para no dañar]

Santiago Truccone Borgogno
Conicet
Centro de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Sociales (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
Programa de Ética y Teoría Política (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
Caseros 301, Ciudad de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)
santiagotruccone@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper I intend to analyse the meaning of harm as well as the strength of the reasons against harming provided by harm-states. I will argue that there are two kinds of harms: absolute harms and relative harms. Also, I will argue that when certain harm has been completely covered by considering such harm as absolute, the consideration of such harm as –also– relative is displaced. Such considerations should be taken into account when the suffered harms cannot be entirely explained by considerations regarding absolute harms. If these claims are right, we will have guidelines to measure, among other things, the agent´s moral responsibility in different kind of cases.

Keywords: Counterfactual – Harm – Reasons – Responsibility – Threshold

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El peso de los daños

THE WEIGHT OF HARM: HARMED STATES AND REASONS AGAINST HARMING
[El peso de los daños: estado de daño y razones para no dañar]

Santiago Truccone Borgogno
Conicet
Centro de Investigaciones Jurídicas y Sociales (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
Programa de Ética y Teoría Política (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)
Caseros 301, Ciudad de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)
santiagotruccone@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper I intend to analyse the meaning of harm as well as the strength of the reasons against harming provided by harm-states. I will argue that there are two kinds of harms: absolute harms and relative harms. Also, I will argue that when certain harm has been completely covered by considering such harm as absolute, the consideration of such harm as –also– relative is displaced. Such considerations should be taken into account when the suffered harms cannot be entirely explained by considerations regarding absolute harms. If these claims are right, we will have guidelines to measure, among other things, the agent´s moral responsibility in different kind of cases.

Keywords: Counterfactual – Harm – Reasons – Responsibility – Threshold

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¿Cómo piensa los derechos…

HOW DOES THE ENGINE ROOM OF THE CONSTITUTION THINK ABOUT RIGHTS?
[¿Cómo piensa los derechos La Sala de Máquinas de la Constitución?]

Marisa Iglesias Vila
Universidad Pompeu Fabra
Edificio Roger de Llúria (Campus de la Ciutadella)
Ramon Trias Fargas, 25-27 – 08005 Barcelona
marisa.iglesias@upf.edu

 

ABSTRACT

  This paper comments on one aspect of Roberto Gargarella’s critical approach to the evolution of constitutional reforms in Latin America: the inclusion of constitutional rights without redistributing institutional power. His proposal to transform the Latin American constitutionalism is to improve the collective dialogue between state powers, and between these powers and the citizenry. I suggest that Gargarella neglects the relevance of reviewing the conception of constitutional rights too, since such reconsideration may contribute to unblock designs which end up preserving social inequalities without enabling political resistance to them. In this vein, I propose substituting the traditional understanding of constitutional rights as barriers or trumps for the idea of rights as mandatory goals or optimization requirements. In the paper I point out some advantages of this revised conception as compared to the liberal perspective, and explain why it may be helpful in strengthening the egalitarian constitutional project.

Key words: Constitutional Rights; Rights as Goals; Proportionality; Culture of Justification; Institutional Division of Labor; Deliberative Quality.

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¿Cómo piensa los derechos…

HOW DOES THE ENGINE ROOM OF THE CONSTITUTION THINK ABOUT RIGHTS?
[¿Cómo piensa los derechos La Sala de Máquinas de la Constitución?]

Marisa Iglesias Vila
Universidad Pompeu Fabra
Edificio Roger de Llúria (Campus de la Ciutadella)
Ramon Trias Fargas, 25-27 – 08005 Barcelona
marisa.iglesias@upf.edu

 

ABSTRACT

  This paper comments on one aspect of Roberto Gargarella’s critical approach to the evolution of constitutional reforms in Latin America: the inclusion of constitutional rights without redistributing institutional power. His proposal to transform the Latin American constitutionalism is to improve the collective dialogue between state powers, and between these powers and the citizenry. I suggest that Gargarella neglects the relevance of reviewing the conception of constitutional rights too, since such reconsideration may contribute to unblock designs which end up preserving social inequalities without enabling political resistance to them. In this vein, I propose substituting the traditional understanding of constitutional rights as barriers or trumps for the idea of rights as mandatory goals or optimization requirements. In the paper I point out some advantages of this revised conception as compared to the liberal perspective, and explain why it may be helpful in strengthening the egalitarian constitutional project.

Key words: Constitutional Rights; Rights as Goals; Proportionality; Culture of Justification; Institutional Division of Labor; Deliberative Quality.

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Deliberative Democracy…

DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY AND THE PROBLEM OF THE COMMONS
[La democracia deliberativa y el problema de los comunes]

Juan Nascimbene
Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
jnascimbene@gmail.com
Avenida Paseo Colón 275, 8º piso, CP 1063 – CABA – Argentina

 

ABSTRACT

  Following Hardin’s paper of “The tragedy of the commons”, it has been traditionally sustained that the government should manage public good resources since their private management would lead to their depletion. However, Elinor Ostrom has challenged this account by identifying a specific type of Common-pool resources that, under circumstances of trust and fluid communication between the parties involved, can be efficiently managed by groups of individuals. In this context, it is this paper’s contention that the postulates of deliberative democracy are compatible with an efficient management of common-pool resources. Thus, this finding would contradict literature that autocratic governments are more effective in managing natural resources.

Key words: deliberative democracy, Common-pool resources, Ostrom, Tragedy of the Commons

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